Cyber Security

PEM (Privacy-Enhanced Mail)

Privacy-Enhanced Mail (PEM) is a de facto file format for storing and sending cryptographic keys, certificates, and other data, based on a set of 1993 IETF standards defining “privacy-enhanced mail.” While the original standards were never broadly adopted, and were supplanted by PGP and S/MIME, the textual encoding they defined became very popular. The PEM format was eventually formalized by the IETF in RFC 7468.

Many cryptography standards use ASN.1 to define their data structures, and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) to serialize those structures. Because DER produces binary output, it can be challenging to transmit the resulting files through systems, like electronic mail, that only support ASCII.

The PEM format solves this problem by encoding the binary data using base64. PEM also defines a one-line header, consisting of “—–BEGIN “, a label, and “—–“, and a one-line footer, consisting of “—–END “, a label, and “—–“. The label determines the type of message encoded. Common labels include “CERTIFICATE”, “CERTIFICATE REQUEST”, “PRIVATE KEY” and “X509 CRL”.

PEM data is commonly stored in files with a “.pem” suffix, a “.cer” or “.crt” suffix (for certificates), or a “.key” suffix (for public or private keys). The label inside a PEM file represents the type of the data more accurately than the file suffix, since many different types of data can be saved in a “.pem” file.

A PEM file may contain multiple instances. For instance, an operating system might provide a file containing a list of trusted CA certificates, or a web server might be configured with a “chain” file containing an end-entity certificate plus a list of intermediate certificates.

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